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Topics in Pulsed Power
"Topics in Pulsed Power"



This is the start of a collection of Pulsed Power related informations, links and "little helpers" that I found usefull.
ECE 695 - Topics in Pulsed Power - Spring 2005



This course provides an introduction into the generation, diagnostics, and application of high power electrical pulses. Topics covered are power conditioning, energy storage devices, pulse forming networks, high power plasma and solid state switches, and electrical and optical diagnostics of pulsed power components and systems. Applications of pulsed power technology for lasers, nonthermal plasmas, charged particle beams, and environmental and medical applications will be discussed.
DATE TOPIC
Jan 13 What is Pulsed Power? - An Introduction
Jan 18 Basic Pulsed Power Circuits
  • Energy Storage Principles
  • Categorization of Pulsed Power System
    (hard tube, line type, inductive storage, capacitive storage, mechanical storage)
Jan 20 Basic Pulsed Power Circuits
  • Capacitive Discharge (RC-circuit)
  • RCL-Circuit (resonant charging)
  • Load Characteristica
  • Pulse Shape Parameter
Jan 25 Tour CBE - Pulsed Power Lab
Jan 27 canceled
Feb 01 Insulation - Electrical Breakdown in Gases
  • Ionization Processes, Townsend Mechanism (time lag)
Feb 03 Insulation - Electrical Breakdown in Gases
  • Streamer Mechanism
  • Paschen's Law
  • Breakdown in Non-Uniform Fields
  • Spark Gaps
  • Partial Breakdown, Corona Discharge
Feb 08 Insulation - Electrical Breakdown in Solids and Liquids
  • Electrical Breakdown in Solids
    (intrinsic breakdown, edge breakdown and treeing, erosion breakdown)
  • Electrical Breakdown in Liquids
    (suspended and particle breakdown mechanism, cavity breakdown, sub-microsecond breakdown)
Feb 10 Generation of High Voltages
  • Electrostatic Generators
    (Van de Graaff generator, homopolar generator)
  • A.C. to D.C. conversion
    (transformers, rectifiers, Greinacher cascade circuit, high voltage power supplies)
Feb 15 Generation of High Voltages
  • project: 1-kV Greinacher cascade circuit
Feb 17 Generation of High Voltages
  • Impulse Voltage Generators
    (single stage circuits, multi stage circuits - Marx bank)
  • Pulse Transformers
Feb 22 Generation of High Voltages
  • Tesla-transformer
  • Greinacher circuit
  • Cockroft-Walton circuit
Feb 24 Generation of High Voltages and High Currents
  • Van der Graaf generator
  • Homopolar generator
Mar 01 Generation of High Voltages
Project: 1-kV Greinacher cascade circuit
  • Design and construction
  • Introduction into the measurement of high voltages
Mar 03 Midterm Exam
Mar 08 spring break
Mar 10 spring break
Mar 15 Generation of Impulse High Voltages
  • Marx bank generator
Mar 17 Generation of Impulse High Voltages
  • Transmission line pulse generator - Theory
Mar 22 Generation of Impulse High Voltages
  • Transmission line pulse generator - theory and example
Mar 24 Generation of Impulse High Voltages
  • Tapered transmission lines (transmission line pulse transformers)
  • Blumlein line pulse generators - theory and example
  • Stacked transmission line pulse generator
  • Selfmatched transmission line pulse generator
  • Pulse forming networks
Mar 29 Generation of Impulse High Voltages
  • Spiral generator
  • Guillemin networks
Mar 31 Generation of Impulse High Voltages
Project: 100-Ohm, 20-ns Blumlein line pulse generator
  • Design and construction
  • Measurement of short high voltage pulses
  • Load-mismatch, capacitive and inductive contributions to the load impedance
Apr 05 High Power Switches
  • Requirements and design criteria
  • Switch categories
  • Spark gaps (design, triggering)
Apr 07 High Power Switches
  • Spark gaps (recovery)
  • Vacuum tubes
  • Surface-discharge switch
Apr 12 High Power Switches
  • Thyratrons, Ignitrons, Pseudospark-switches
  • Opening switches, fuses
Apr 14 High Voltage and Current Measurement Techniques
Apr 19 High Power Switches
  • Solid state switches (incl. photoconductive switches)
Apr 21 Term Paper Presentations
Apr 26 Term Paper Presentations
Apr 28 High Voltage Safety
May 03 Rehearsal
May 05 Final Exam





Formulas for the Calculation of Common Inductances*)


(unless otherwise noted use SI-units in all presented formulas)


*) Planar geometries which are not very common in pulsed power systems are not covered in this table. Readers are refered to references 1, 6 and especially 8.
Of course no guarantee is given for the accuracy of the listed formulaes although I tried my best. Please let me know when you find any mistakes.




 

inductance



formula



example



ref.




long, thin wire
(as segment of closed circuit)


  r = mm
  l = cm
nH
1


conductor from parallel wires
(current runs in same direction)
r << d



  l = cm
  w = mm
  r = mm
nH
8


return circuit of parallel wires
(current runs in opposite directions)
r << d


l = 100 cm
w = 2 cm
r = 0.5 mm
L = 1.478 mH
1


strip line
(as segment of closed circuit)

l = 100 cm
w = 50 cm
d = 1.0 mm
L = 1.185 mH
1


return circuit of parallel plates
(current runs in opposite directions)

  l = cm
  w = mm
  d = mm
nH
2


coaxial cable


  l = cm
  R = mm
  r = mm
nH
2


loop


  R = mm
  r = mm
nH
1


single layer solenoid


 
N: number of turns



"F-factor" is computed automatically
  R = mm
  l = cm
  N =
mH
7

"Where great accuracy is required, a correction factor may be applied to the equation to take account of the fact that the coil is wound of spaced round wires rather than with a uniform current sheet. This correction rarely exceeds 0.5%, is greatly for widely spaced turns, and increases with the number of turns." [7]



single layer short solenoid
(l < 0.8 R)



 
N: number of turns



Nagaoka-factor K is computed automatically

  R = mm
  l = cm
  N =
mH
1


single layer long solenoid
(l > 0.8 R)



 
N: number of turns

  R = mm
  l = cm
  N =
mH
1


single layer very long (ideal) solenoid
(l >> 2R
)


 
N: number of turns


  R = mm
  l = cm
  N =
mH
3


multi layer solenoid


  
N: number of turns



"F-factor" and correction factor B are computed automatically


            D : distance between wire centers
            d : diameter of bare wire


  R = mm
  l = cm
  w = mm
  N =
mH
  R = mm
  N =
  D = mm
  d = mm
mH
9


multi layer thin wall solenoid


 
N: number of turns



N = 1000
d = 10 mm
l = 5 cm
mr = 1
L = 1.645 mH
4


toroid


 
N: number of turns




  N =
  R = mm
  D = cm
  mr =
mH
4


spiral (flat coil)


 
N: number of turns



(Wheeler formula)
N = 20
R = 5 cm
w = 2 cm
L = 63.501 mH
1
windings cover entire area





(Schieber formula)

N = 20
R = 5 cm
L = 1.380 nH
1

Both formulas can also be used for printed flat coils. For the Wheeler formulas errors up to 20% have been reported. A more accurate calculation takes the ratio between coil radius, R, and winding-thickness, w, into account (Grover method). See reference 1 for details.



conical coils


 


The inductance of conical coils is calculated from the geometric sum of the helical and the planar contribution. See reference 5 for details.



LH : inductance of equivalent helical coil
LP : inductance of equivalent planar coil

5




    1) Marc T. Thompson, "Inductance Calculation Techniques - Part II: Approximations and Handbook Methods," www.pcim.com, 1999.
    2) home.san.rr.com/nessengr/techdata/inductance/induc.html
    3) H. Stöcker,Taschenbuch der Physik, Verlag Harri Deutsch, Frankfurt/Main, 1994, p. 334 (f = 1).
    4) Formelsammlung Passive Bauelemente, www.iwe.uni-karlsruhe.de/download/WWW_PB_WET_FS.pdf
    5) Herb's Tesla Page (Design Page), http://home.wtal.de/herbs_teslapage/design.html#des-2pri
    6) University of Missouri-Rolla, Electromagnetic Compatibility Laboratory, www.emclab.umr.edu/new-induct, 2001.
    7) F.E. Terman, Radio Engineers' Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1943, p.53.
    8) F.W. Grover, Inductance Calculations, Dover Publications, Mineola, 2004, p.37.
    9) F.E. Terman, Radio Engineers' Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1943, p.60.